ASEAN w cieniu relacji chińsko-khmerskich


Abstrakt

The most dynamic global integration processes are currently taking place in South-East Asia. It is also the arena of competition between the main regional organisation, the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the People’s Republic of China. Since the early 1990s, both entities have been seeking to secure the position of the leader in regional international relations, while trying to maximise the benefits of co-operation with the other party. Xi Jinping’s concept of peaceful growth and the assumptions of his political thought, according to which Beijing invites other states to participate in the harmonious development of a ‘community of destiny’, have proved to be a tempting alternative to the ASEAN states facing institutional problems. The Kingdom of Cambodia is an example of a country particularly vulnerable to Chinese influence. This country is referred to as ‘China’s greatest friend in the modern world’, and the events of recent years related to the problem of security in the South China Sea together with economic, political and cultural factors have shown that this alliance, which is asymmetrical in terms of the potential of both sides, affect stability and lead to the erosion of trust within the organisation. The article is devoted to the review of Chinese-Khmer relations in the context of their significance for ASEAN integration processes, particularly in the sphere of security. The article discusses the reasons why  Phnom Penh is drifting more towards closer co-operation with China and shows the internal effects of such a unilaterally oriented foreign policy. It also explains the role that Cambodia and ASEAN play for China in their concept of growth oriented towards the international environment.


Acharya A. (2003) Seeking Security in the Dragon’s Shadow: China and Southeast Asia in the Emerging Asian Order, Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies, Working Papers, Singapore, nr 44, s. 2–3.

Amaro Y. (2016) China MoU to help “reform” judiciary, <http://www.phnompenhpost.com/national/china-mou-help-reform-judiciary> [dostęp: 5 czerwca 2019].

Andornino G. (2006) The Nature and Linkages of China’s Tributary System under the Ming and Qing Dynasties, „Working Papers on the Global Economic History Network (GEHN)”, nr 21, s. 6.

Bader J. (2015) China’s Foreign Relations and the Survival of Autocracies, Routledge, New York, s. 81.

Beckman R. (2009) Time for ASEAN-China Joint Development? w: Y.R. Kassim (ed.), Strategic Currents: Emerging Trends in Southeast Asia, Rajaratman School of International Relations, Singapore, s. 159.

Beeson M. (2016) Can ASEAN Cope with China? „Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs”, vol. 35, nr 1, s. 15.

Bokarev D. (2017) Cambodia as an Example of Chinese Influence in Asia, <http://journalneo.org/2017/01/10/cambodia-as-an-example-of-chinese-influence-in-asean/> [dostęp: 5 czerwca 2019].

Brinkley J. (2011) Cambodia’s Course: The Modern History of a Troubled Land, Public Affairs, New York, s. 349.

Burgos S., Ear S. (2010) China’s Strategic Interests in Cambodia: Influence and Resources, „Asian Survey”, vol. 50, nr 3, s. 622.

Cabestan J.P. (2013) Polityka zagraniczna Chin, Wydawnictwo Dialog, Warszawa, s. 56.

Cheng-Chwee K. (2005) Multilateralizm In China’s ASEAN Policy: Its Evolution, Characteristics, and Aspiration, „Contemporary Southeast Asia”, vol. 27, nr 1, s. 103.

Cheunboran C. (2017) Cambodia-China Relations: From Early Encounters to Post-Cold War, w: S.U. Deth, S. Sun, S. Bulut (eds.), Cambodia’s Foreign Relations in Regional and Global Context, Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung, Phnom Penh, s. 240.

Chheang V. (2009) Cambodia: Between China and Japan, CICP Working Papers, Phnom Penh, nr 31, s. 8.

Ciorciari J.D. (2014) A Chinese model for patron-client relations? The Sino-Cambodian partnership, „International Relations of the Asia-Pacific”, vol. 15, nr 2, s. 10–11.

Ciorciari J.D. (2013) China and Cambodia: Patron and Client? „International Policy Center Working Paper”, nr 121, s. 31.

Daguan Z. (2007) A Record of Cambodia: The Land and Its People, Silkworm Books, Bangkok.

Egberink F., van der Putter F.P. (2011) ASEAN, China’s Rise and Geopolitical Stability in Asia, Clingendael Paper, Netherlands Institute of International Relations, Den Haag, nr 2, s. 24.

Ek C., Sok H. (2008) Aid Effectiveness in Cambodia, Wolfensohn Center for Development, Washington, s. 14.

Fijałkowski Ł. (2010) Regionalny wymiar bezpieczeństwa w Azji Południowo-Wschodniej, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, Wrocław, s. 120–121.

Frost S., Pandita S., Hewison K. (2002) The Implications for Labor of China’s Direct Investment in Cambodia, „Asian Perspective”, vol. 26, nr 4, s. 209.

Gavin L. (2015) How Will the ASEAN Economic Community Impact Cambodia? <http://chabdai.org/blog/asean-community> [dostęp: 5 czerwca 2019].

Gawlikowski K., Ławacz M., Dziak W.J. (2012) Chiny w XXI w. Perspektywy rozwoju, Instytut Studiów Politycznych PAN, Warszawa, s. 348.

Haliżak E. (2006) Wspólnota Pacyfiku a Wspólnota Wschodnioazjatycka, „Żurawia Papers”, z. 8, Scholar, Warszawa, s. 26–27.

Heng P. (2012) Cambodia-China Relatios: A Positive-Sum Game? „Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs”, vol. 31, nr 2, s. 74.

Heng P. (2013) Chinese investment and aid in Cambodia a controversial affair, <http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2013/07/16/chinese-investment-and-aid-in-cambodia-a-controversial-affair/> [dostęp: 5 czerwca 2019].

Heng P. (2014) Three keys to unlocking Cambodia’s growth, <http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2014/11/13/three-keys-to-unlocking-cambodias-growth/> [dostęp: 5 czerwca 2019].

Ho T.K., Kang S. (2015) Cambodia-China Trade to Top $5 Billion by 2017, <https://www.cambodiadaily.com/business/cambodia-china-trade-to-top-5-billion-by-2017-86222/> [dostęp: 5 czerwca 2019].

Hourn K.K. (2002) Cambodia’s Foreign Policy and ASEAN, Cambodian Institute for Cooperation and Peace, Phnom Penh, s. 58.

Hughes C.R. (2006) Nationalism and Multilateralism in Chinese Foreign Policy: Implications for Southeast Asia, w: J. Chinyong, R. Emmers (eds.), Order and Security in Southeast Asia: Essays in Memory of Michael Leifer, Routledge, New York, s. 113–114.

Hurley J., Morris S., Portelance G. (2018) Examining the Debt Implications of the Belt and Road Initiative from a Policy Perspective, Center for Global Development Policy Paper 121, March 2018, Washington, s. 29.

Hutt D. (2019) Why Hun Sen Leeds China more than ever, https://www.asiatimes.com/2019/02/article/why-hun-sen-needs-china-now-more-than-ever/ [dostęp: 5 czerwca 2019].

Jeldres J.A. (2012) Cambodia’s Relations with China: A Steadfast Friendship, w: P. Sothirak, G. Wade, M. Hong (eds.), Cambodia: Progress and Challenges since 1991, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore, s. 89.

Jelonek A. (2008) Kambodża, Wydawnictwo TRIO, Warszawa, s. 260.

Jones D.M., Jenne N. (2015) Weak states’ regionalism: ASEAN and the limits of security cooperation in Pacific Asia, „International Relations of the Asia-Pacific”, vol. 16, nr 2, s. 14–15.

Juned M., Bainus A., Saripudin M.H., Setiabudi W., Kantrapawira R. (2018) The Road to Peace in South China Sea: The Role of Indonesia Through ASEAN, „Man in India”, vol. 97, nr 18, s. 159.

Khoo N. (2016) Why ASEAN is in Disarray in the South China Sea? <http://nationalinterest.org/blog/the-buzz/why-asean-disarray-the-south-china-sea-17973> [dostęp: 5 czerwca 2019].

Kibria A. (2016) How Politics Is Killing Cambodia’s Forests, http://thediplomat.com/2016/09/how-politics-is-killing-cambodias-forests/ [dostęp: 5 czerwca 2019].

Kristof N.D. (1993) The Rise of China, „Foreign Affairs”, vol. 72, nr 5.

Kubny J., Voss H. (2010) The Impact of Chinese Investment: Evidence from Cambodia and Vietnam, German Development Institute Discussion Paper, Bonn, s. 1.

Kundu S. (2016) China divides ASEAN in the South China Sea, <http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2016/05/21/china-divides-asean-in-the-south-china-sea/> [dostęp: 5 czerwca 2019].

Kwieciński R. (2017) Chiny na drodze do potęgi morskiej? w: Ł. Gacek, R. Kwieciński, E. Trojnar (red.), Bliżej Azji. Współczesne wyzwania dla bezpieczeństwa, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar, Warszawa, s. 19.

Long K. (2009) Sino-Cambodia Relations, CICP Working Papers, Phnom Penh, nr 28, s. 7.

Michałek M. (2014) Przydatność kategorii systemu trybutarnego w analizie polityki zagranicznej Chin, „Stosunki Międzynarodowe – International Relations”, nr 1, s. 40.

Natakegawa M. (2018) Does ASEAN Matter? A View from Within, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore, s. 175.

O’Neill D. (2014) Playing Risk: Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Cambodia, „Contemporary Southeast Asia”, vol. 36, nr 2, s. 180.

Palatino M. (2016) Cambodia’s Hun Wans a South China Sea Apoogy, <https://thediplomat.com/2016/02/cambodias-hun-sen-wants-a-south-china-sea-apology/> [dostęp: 5 czerwca 2019].

Parameswaran P. (2018) What’s in the China-Cambodia Military Base Hype? <https://thediplomat.com/2018/11/whats-in-the-china-cambodia-military-base-hype/> [dostęp: 5 czerwca 2019].

Peh S.H. Commentary: Why China must charm ASEAN again, <http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/asiapacific/commentary-why-china-must/2977336.html> [dostęp: 5 czerwca 2019].

Pei M. (2012) The Loneliest Superpower, <http://foreignpolicy.com/2012/03/20/the-loneliest-superpower/> [dostęp: 5 czerwca 2019].

Peou S. (2000) Intervention and Change in Cambodia. Towards Democracy? Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore, s. 381.

Ponniah K. (2014) Sokha ‚snubs China for US’, <http://www.phnompenhpost.com/national/sokha-%E2%80%98snubs-china-us%E2%80%99> [dostęp: 5 czerwca 2019].

Prak C. (2012) Cambodia’s ASEAN help leads to Chinese aid, <http://www.chinapost.com.tw/china/national-news/2012/09/05/353311/Cambodias-ASEAN.htm> [dostęp: 5 czerwca 2019].

Renwick N. (2016) China as a Development Actor in Southeast Asia, „Evidence Report”, nr 187, s. 5.

Severino R.C. (2006) Southeast Asia in Search of an ASEAN Community: Insights from the Former ASEAN Secretary-General, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore, s. 185.

Siem P. (2014) How Has China’s Aid Influenced Cambodia’s Foreign Policy? A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Arts in International Studies, Royal University of Phnom Penh, s. 18.

Soja P. (2017) Integration of the CLMV Countries with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, „The Polish Quaterly of International Affairs”, vol. 26, nr 4, s. 58.

Soong J.J. (2018) The Political Economy of Development Between China and the ASEAN States: Opportunity and Challenge, „The Chinese Economy”, vol. 49, s. 397.

Sørensen C.T.N. (2015) The Significance of Xi Jinping’s „Chinese Dream” for Chinese Foreign Policy: From „Tao Guang Yan Hui” to „Fen Fa You Wei”, „Journal of China and International Relations”, vol. 3, nr 1, s. 55.

Storey I. (2011) Southeast Asia and the Rise of China: The Search for Security, Routledge, London, s. 181.

Strangio S. (2014) Hun Sen’s Cambodia, Yale University Press, New Haven, s. 81–82.

Sullivan M. (2011) China’s Aid to Cambodia, w: C. Hughes, K. Un (eds.), Cambodia’s Economic Transformation, NIAS Press, Copenhagen, s. 56.

Tan Kong Y. (1992) Whither ASEAN? „ASEAN Monitor”, nr 2, s. 6–7.

Thul P.C. (2019) Cambodian PM says China ready to help if EU imposes sanctions, <https://www.reuters.com/article/us-cambodia-china/cambodian-pm-says-china-ready-to-help-if-eu-imposes-sanctions-idUSKCN1S50N7> [dostęp: 5 czerwca 2019].

Ven R. NGOs Die First if Aid Cut: PM, <http://www.khmertimeskh.com/news/26080/ngos-die-first-if-aid-cut--pm/> [dostęp: 5 czerwca 2019].

Willmott W.E. (1967) The Chinese in Cambodia, University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver, s. 80.

Wright G. (2018) Anti-Chinese Sentiment on the Rise in Cambodia, <https://thediplomat.com/2018/11/anti-chinese-sentiment-on-the-rise-in-cambodia/> [dostęp: 5 czerwca 2019].

Yoshihara T., Holmes J.R. (2011) Can China Defend a „Core Interest” in the South China Sea? „The Washington Quarterly”, vol. 34, nr 2, s. 44.

Yunling Z., Yuzhu W. (2018) ASEAN in China’s Grand Strategy, w: ERIA Institute, ASEAN@50 – Building ASEAN Community: Political-Security and Socio-cultural Reflections, vol. 4, s. 159.

Zhai Q. (2006) China and Cambodian Conflict, 1970–1975, w: P.M. Roberts (ed.), Behind the Bamboo Curtain: China, Vietnam, and the World Beyond Asia, Stanford University Press, Stanford, s. 377.

Zhang Y., Buzan B. (2012) The Tributary System as International Society in Theory and Practice, „The Chinese Journal of International Politics”, vol. 5, nr 1, s. 8.

Pobierz

Opublikowane : 2020-01-30


Soja, P. (2020). ASEAN w cieniu relacji chińsko-khmerskich. Studia Polityczne, 47(3), 59-84. https://doi.org/10.35757/STP.2019.47.3.03

Paweł Soja 
Uniwersytet Jagielloński  Polska
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1294-5525





Inne teksty tego samego autora