Kwoty płci w polityce: przegląd badań


The issue of women’s presence in politics is one of the key indicators of equality and is treated as a process of democratisation. On the eve of the anniversary of the Beijing Declaration, more than half of countries use institutional mechanisms to increase women’s participation in decision-making bodies (gender quotas); 24.5% of the world’s MPs are women. The aim of this article is a structural literature review focusing on the most important findings regarding gender quotas. The literature devoted to the issue of gender quotas concentrates on four perspectives, namely (1) descriptive representations of women (DRW), (2) substantive representation of women (SRW), (3) the role of political leaders or parties, and (4) the effectiveness of quotas in increasing the number of women in politics. The researchers’ findings confirm the effectiveness of using electoral quotas, in particular in increasing the descriptive representation of women.

Allen P., Cutts D., How Do Gender Quotas Affect Public Support for Women as Political Leaders? „West European Politics” 2018, nr 41(1), s. 147–168,

Barburska O., Polityka Unii Europejskiej w zakresie zrównoważonego udziału kobiet w politycznych strukturach decyzyjnych, „Studia Europejskie” 2007, nr 4, s. 81–113, <>.

Beaman L. et al., Female Leadership Raises Aspirations and Educational Attainment for Girls: A Policy Experiment in India, „Science” 2012, <>.

Celis K., Childs S., Kantola J., Krook M.L., Rethinking Women’s Substantive Representation, „Journal of Representative Democracy” 2008, nr 44(2), s. 99–110,

Childs S., Krook M.L., Analysing Women’s Substantive Representation: From Critical Mass to Critical Actors, „Government and Opposition” 2009, nr 44(2), 125–145,

Childs S., Krook M.L., Critical Mass Theory and Women’s Political Representation, „Political Studies” 2008, nr 56(3), s. 725–736, <>.

Dacombe R., Systematic Reviews in Political Science: What Can the Approach Contribute to Political Research? „Political Studies Review” 2018, nr 16, s. 148–157, <>.

Dahlerup D., Freidenvall L., Quotas as a „Fast Track” to Equal Representation for Women, „International Feminist Journal of Politics” 2005, nr 7(1), s. 26–48, <>.

Dahlerup D., From a Small to a Large Minority: Women in Scandinavian Politics, „Scandinavian Political Studies” 1988, nr 11(4), s. 275–298, <>.

Delgado-Márquez B.L., Ramírez-González V., López-Carmona A., Ensuring Parliamentary Gender Equality Through a New Zipper Method: An Application to Finland, „Social Indicators Research” 2014, nr 116(2), s. 475–492, <>.

Edgell A.B., Foreign Aid, Democracy, and Gender Quota Laws, „Democratization” 2017, nr 24(6), s. 1103–1141, <>.

Funk K.D., Hinojosa M., Piscopo J.M., Women to the Rescue: The Gendered Effects of Public Discontent on Legislative Nominations in Latin America, „Party Politics” 2019, May, s. 1–13, <>.

Geys B., Sørensen R.J., The Impact of Women above the Political Glass Ceiling: Evidence from a Norwegian Executive Gender Quota Reform, „Electoral Studies” 2019, nr 60, s. 1–10,

Górecki M.A., Kukołowicz P., Gender Quotas, Candidate Background and the Election of Women: A Paradox of Gender Quotas in Open-List Proportional Representation Systems, „Electoral Studies” 2014, nr 36, s. 65–80, <>.

Joshi D.K., Thimothy R., Long-Term Impacts of Parliamentary Gender Quotas in a Single-Party System: Symbolic Co-Option or Delayed Integration?, „International Political Science Review” 2019, nr 40(4), s. 591–606, <>.

Kerevel Y., Empowering Women? Gender Quotas and Women’s Political Careers, „Journal of Politics” 2019, nr 81(4), s. 1167–1180, <>.

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Meier P., Lombardo E., Gender Quotas, Gender Mainstreaming and Gender Relations in Politics, „Political Science” 2013, nr 65(1), s. 46–62, <>.

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Rosen J., Gender Quotas for Women in National Politics: A Comparative Analysis across Development Thresholds, „Social Science Research” 2017, nr 66, s. 82–101, <>.

Ruf F., Does Non-Quota Strategy Matter? A Comparative Study on Candidate Selection and Women’s Representation at the Local Level in Germany, „Politics & Gender” 2019, s. 1–30,

Schwindt-Bayer L.A., Making Quotas Work: The Effect of Gender Quota Laws on the Election of Women, „Legislative Studies Quarterly” 2009, nr 34(1), s. 5–28, <>.

Studlar D.T., McAllister I., Does a Critical Mass Exist? A Comparative Analysis of Women’s Legislative Representation since 1950, „European Journal of Political Research” 2002, nr 41(2), s. 33–253,

Sundström A., Stockemer D., What Determines Women’s Political Representation at the Local Level? A Fine-Grained Analysis of the European Regions, „International Journal of Comparative Sociology” 2015, nr 56(3–4), s. 254–274,

Tinker I., Quotas for Women in Elected Legislatures: Do They Really Empower Women? „Women’s Studies International Forum” 2004, nr 27(5–6, s. 531–546, <>.

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Tripp A.M., Kang A., The Global Impact of Quotas: On the Fast Track to Increased Female Legislative Representation, „Comparative Political Studies” 2008, nr 41(3), s. 338–361, <>.

Wang V., Yoon M.Y., Recruitment Mechanisms for Reserved Seats for Women in Parliament and Switches to Non-Quota Seats: A Comparative Study of Tanzania and Uganda, „Journal of Modern African Studies” 2018, nr 56(2), s. 299 324, <>.

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Weeks A.C., Baldez, Quotas and Qualifications: The Impact of Gender Quota Laws on the Qualifications of Legislators in the Italian Parliament, „European Political Science Review” 2014, nr 7(1), s. 119–144.

Weeks A.C., Quotas and Party Priorities: Direct and Indirect Effects of Quota Laws, „Political Research Quarterly” 2019, nr 72(4), s. 849–862.

Weeks A.C., Why Are Gender Quota Laws Adopted by Men? The Role of Inter- and Intraparty Competition, „Comparative Political Studies” 2018, nr 51(14), s. 1935–1973,

Yoon J., Shin K.-Y., Opportunities and Challenges to Gender Quotas in Local Politics: The Case of Municipal Council Elections in South Korea, „Asian Journal of Women’s Studies” 2017, nr 23(3), s. 363–384, <>.


Opublikowane : 2021-03-22

Kijewska, B. (2021). Kwoty płci w polityce: przegląd badań. Studia Polityczne, 49(1), 11-27.

Barbara Kijewska
Uniwersytet Gdański  Polska