Kierunki rozwoju globalnego klastra technologii i innowacji Greater Bay Area w Chinach – stan i perspektywy


Abstrakt

The purpose of this article is to describe the main directions for developing the global technology and innovation cluster Greater Bay Area (GBA) in China. Strengthening productivity and enhancing innovation have become focal points of the country’s next phase of economic growth. Under the conditions of the depleting traditional sources of growth and economic development in China, the initiatives aimed at the development of cluster structures play an important role in improving competitiveness, innovation and innovativeness of the economy. Among them, attention should be paid to the ambitious project to connect the major cities from the southern coast of China with Hong Kong and Macau into a cluster to provide an integrated economic and business centre of modern China. The main research question is: What are the opportunities and challenges in making the cluster concept at the initial stage of development a reality? A descriptive, comparative and analytical method has been used. The analysis has led to a few main conclusions. The GBA cluster has a great development potential. Creating a fully integrated region under the conditions of a collision between different legal, administrative systems and currency and business practices is a challenge. In order for a cluster to grow, it is essential to strengthen regional cooperation and to continue efforts to eliminate institutional and legal barriers in the region, to introduce incentives to encourage the establishment and development of cooperation between cluster participants, to provide reliable information and data on changes in the legal sphere and economic forecasts, and to create high quality local relationships to build and strengthen mutual partnership and trust.


Słowa kluczowe

klaster; innowacyjność; konkurencyjność; rozwój; Greater Bay Area; Chiny

Bobrecka-Jamro D., Szpunar-Krok E., Dylewska I., Klastry – istota i znaczenie w podnoszeniu konkurencyjności przedsiębiorstw, [w:] Przedsiębiorczość, innowacyjność, foresight. Aspekty ekonomiczne, społeczne i ekologiczne, red. L. Woźniak, Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Rzeszowskiej, Rzeszów 2008.

Brandt L., Litwack J., Mileva E., Wang L., Zhang Y., Zhao L., China’s productivity slowdown and future growth potential, World Bank, Washington 2020 (Policy Research Working Paper, 9298).

Cai P., Understanding China’s Belt and Road Initiative. Analysis, Lowy Institute for International Policy, March 2017: <https://www.lowyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/documents/Understanding%20China%E2%80%99s%20Belt%20and%20Road%20Initiative_web_1.pdf> [dostęp: 21 XI 2020].

Carlino G. A., Kerr W., Agglomeration and innovation, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge 2014 (NBER Working Paper Series, 20367).

Cheung P., Huizhou is envisioned as Guangdong Silicon Valley, MUFG Bank, 2019 (News Focus, 3 2019): <https://rmb.bk.mufg.jp/files/topics/906_ext_02_en_0.pdf> [dostęp: 13 XII 2020].

Ciravegna L., Majano S. B., Zhan G., The inception of internationalization of small and medium enterprises. The role of activeness and networks, „Journal of Business Research” 2014, vol. 67, issue 6.

Dingding Ch., Tiffany Ch., Is the Greater Bay Area China’s future?, „The Diplomat” [online], 31 VII 2019 [dostęp: 26 XI 2020]: <https://thediplomat.com/2019/07/is-the-greater-bay-area-chinas-future/>.

Ferras-Hernandez X., Nylund P. A., Clusters as innovation engines. The accelerating strengths of proximity, „European Management Review” 2018, vol. 16, issue 1.

Francesch-Huidobro M., Climate resilience in the Greater Bay Area of China – the role of technological innovation, Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung, April 2019: <https://www.kas.de/documents/265079/265128/V3_latest_Climate+Resilience+in+the+Greater+Bay+Area+of+China+%28final+version%29.pdf/2d08532f-8a59-7c57-1d6a-4608622bb589?version> [dostęp: 16 XII 2020].

Furman J., Porter M. E., Stern S., Determinants of national innovative capacity, „Research Policy” 2002, vol. 31, issue 6.

Giovannini M., Macao moves toward more financial integration in the Greater Bay Area, „China Global Television Network” [online], 8 X 2020 [dostęp: 28 XII 2020]: <https://news.cgtn.com/news/2020-10-08/Macao-moves-toward-more-financial-integration-in-the-Greater-Bay-Area-Uppn6Kxknw/index.html>.

The Global Innovation Index 2018. Energizing the world with innovation. 11th edition, ed. S. Dutta, B. Lanvin, S. Wunsch-Vincent, Cornell University, Institut européen d’administration des affaires, World Intellectual Property Organization, Ithaca–Fontainebleau–Geneva 2018: <https://www.globalinnovationindex.org/gii-2018-report#> [dostęp: 3 X 2020].

The Global Innovation Index 2020. Who will finance innovation? 13th edition, ed. S. Dutta, B. Lanvin, S. Wunsch-Vincent, Cornell University, Institut européen d’administration des affaires, World Intellectual Property Organization, Ithaca–Fontainebleau–Geneva 2020: <https://www.wipo.int/edocs/pubdocs/en/wipo_pub_gii_2020.pdf> [dostęp: 3 X 2020].

Gorynia M., Jankowska B., Klastry a międzynarodowa konkurencyjność i internacjonalizacja przedsiębiorstwa, Wydawnictwo „Difin”, Warszawa 2008.

Jankowska B., Götz M., Internationalization intensity of clusters and their impact on firm internationalization. The case of Poland, „European Planning Studies” 2017, vol. 25, No. 6.

Johnson Ch. K., President Xi Jinping’s „Belt and Road” Initiative. A practical assessment of the Chinese Communist Party’s roadmap for China’s global resurgence, Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2016: <https://www.csis.org/analysis/president-xi-jinping’s-belt-and-road-initiative> [dostęp: 21 XI 2020].

Karaev A., Lenny Koh S. C., Szamosi L. T., The cluster approach and SME competitiveness. A review, „Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management” 2007, vol. 18 (7).

Ketels Ch., The development of the cluster concept – present experience and future developments, Duisburg, 5 XII 2003: <http://www.clustermapping.us/sites/default/files/files/resource/The_development_of_the_cluster_concept_-_present_experiences_and_further_developments.pdf> [dostęp: 17 XI 2020].

Ketels Ch., Recent research on competitiveness and clusters. What are the implications for regional policy?, „Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society” 2013, vol. 6, issue 2.

Kowalski A. M., Znaczenie klastrów dla innowacyjności gospodarki w Polsce, Szkoła Główna Handlowa, Oficyna Wydawnicza, Warszawa 2013.

Lindqvist G., Ketels Ch., Sölvell Ö., The cluster initiative greenbook 2.0, Ivory Tower Publishers, Stockholm 2013.

Liu C., Li O., Lan L., Liu Sh., Report on cities of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area. To develop new growth potential in Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao GBA: Dongguan, PwC China, 2019: <https://www.pwccn.com/en/research-and-insights/greater-bay-area-economic-growth-dongguan.pdf> [dostęp: 10 XII 2020].

Liu X., Structural changes and economic growth in China over the past 40 years of reform and opening-up, „China Political Economy” 2020, vol. 3, No. 1.

Ljungwall Ch., Guangdong. A catalyst for economic growth and exports in Hunan province, „Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies” 2004, vol. 2, issue 3.

Ma G., Roberts I., Kelly G., Rebalancing China’s economy. Domestic and international implications, „China and the World Economy” 2017, vol. 25, issue 1.

Meng L., Sun Y., Zhao S., Comparing the spatial and temporal dynamics of urban expansion in Guangzhou and Shenzhen from 1975 to 2015. A case study of pioneer cities in China’s rapid urbanization, „Land Use Policy” 2020, vol. 97 (c).

Mukherjee S., Uttam M., Roadmap to building a citizen-centric Smart GBA Region, PwC China, 2018: <https://www.pwccn.com/en/research-and-insights/roadmap-to-building-a-citizen-centric-smart-gba-region.pdf> [dostęp: 25 XI 2020].

Porter M. E., Clusters and the new economics of competition, „Harvard Business Review” 1998, vol. 76, No. 6.

Przedsiębiorczość, innowacyjność, foresight. Aspekty ekonomiczne, społeczne i ekologiczne, red. L. Woźniak, Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Rzeszowskiej, Rzeszów 2008.

Ren D., Huizhou looks to upgrade its industrial mix as it eyes key role in Greater Bay Area, „South China Morning Post” [online], 12 VII 2020 [dostęp: 13 XII 2020]: <https://www.scmp.com/business/companies/article/3092833/huizhou-looks-upgrade-its-industrial-mix-it-eyes-key-role>.

Researching open innovation in SMES, ed. W. Vanhaverbeke, F. Frattini, N. Roijakkers, M. Usman, World Scientific Publishing, Singapore 2018.

Shih G., China wants to pull Hong Kong into a „Greater Bay Area” that could compete with Silicon Valley, „The Washington Post” [online], 19 II 2019 [dostęp: 8 I 2021]: <https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/china-wants-to-pull-hong-kong-into-a-greater-bay-area-that-could-compete-with-silicon-valley/2019/02/19/71f2518c-3412-11e9-946a-115a5932c45b_story.html>.

Sölvell Ö., Ketels Ch., Lindqvist G., Industrial specialization and regional clusters in the ten new EU member states, „Competitiveness Review” 2008, vol. 18, No. 1/2.

Sölvell Ö., Lindqvist G., Ketels Ch., The cluster initiative greenbook, Ivory Tower, Stockholm 2003.

Tan Ch. H., A fine balance required for the success of China’s Greater Bay Area, „Unravel” [online], 10 XI 2020 [dostęp: 22 V 2021]: <https://unravel.ink/a-fine-balance-required-for-the-success-of-chinas-greater-bay-area/>.

Upton P., China’s Greater Bay Area. Looking beyond its flagship cities, „China Briefing” [online], 11 VI 2020 [dostęp: 22 V 2021]: <https://www.china-briefing.com/news/chinas-greater-bay-area-looking-beyond-flagship-cities/>.

Wei S.-J., Xie Z., Zhang X., From „Made in China” to „Innovated in China”. Necessity, prospects, and challenges, „Journal of Economic Perspectives” 2017, vol. 31, No. 1.

Wong D., China’s Greater Bay Area in 2020. Opening up the financial industry, promoting integration, „The American Chamber of Commerce in Shanghai” [online], 27 V 2020 [dostęp: 23 XII 2020]: <https://www.amcham-shanghai.org/en/article/chinas-greater-bay-area-2020-opening-financial-industry-promoting-integration>.

Yeung H., A tale of two cities – the development and reform experiences of Shenzhen and Shanghai, „Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies” 2015, vol. 13, issue 4.

Zimmermann J. B., The firm/territory relationships in the globalisation: towards a new rationale, „European Journal of Economic and Social Systems” 2001, vol. 15, No. 1.

Pobierz

Opublikowane : 2021-07-05


Radomska, E. (2021). Kierunki rozwoju globalnego klastra technologii i innowacji Greater Bay Area w Chinach – stan i perspektywy. Sprawy Międzynarodowe, 73(4), 253-278. https://doi.org/10.35757/SM.2020.73.4.09

Ewa Radomska  ewa.radomska@up.krakow.pl
Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. Komisji Edukacji Narodowej w Krakowie  Polska
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9503-534X