The lobbying of cities in the European Union
Most European Union policies directly affect cities, but their role in formulating these policies is insufficient. Therefore, cities are undertaking para-diplomacy and lobbying at the EU level independently of national governments. They use the opportunities offered by the EU, namely multilevel governance system and the European Commission’s policy of openness and deliberation. The article presents an analysis of the patterns and strategies of representation of cities’ interests at the EU level, their adaptation to the requirements of the EU interests intermediation system, as well as the motivations for undertaking lobbying. It is argued that cities follow two main channels of interests representation: permanent representations with direct lobbying in Brussels and activity in European city networks. Two types of motivations behind lobbying can be distinguished: regulatory mobilization and financial mobilization. Their relations with EU institutions are subject to advanced institutionalization.
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