Sankcje jako forma dialogu


Abstrakt

The article proposes a broader view on international economic sanctions. They should be recognized not only as a tool of coercion but multifunction foreign policy instrument to punish, detere, reassure and signal. As a matter of fact restrictions have turned into an important ingredient of political dialogue. The article questions the dominant approach focused on narrowly defined effectiveness measured by a visible and major change in a target’s policy. Looking at sanctions as a form of communicating preferences and interests, as well as an element of bargaining game, allows to better understand their political functions and thus to nuance an assessment of their effectiveness. The significance of restrictions introduced after the annexation of Crimea and later on goes beyond provoking a change in Russian policy, beyond critique of past misdeeds and an attempt to restore the status quo. Actually, they are about sending a credible signal to the future to convince potential Russian followers that their actions will be charged with specific costs.


Słowa kluczowe

sankcje międzynarodowe; Rosja; Unia Europejska; komunikacja strategiczna; przymus; dialog

Abbott K. W., Coercion and communication: frameworks for evaluation of economic sanctions, “New York University Journal of International Law and Politics” 1987, vol. 19, dostępny w internecie [dostęp: 11 V 2020]: SSRN: <https://ssrn.com/abstract=1402816>.

Baldwin D. A., Economic statecraft, Princeton University Press, Princeton 1985.

Beyer A., Zogg B., Time to ease sanctions on Russia, “Policy Perspectives”, vol. 6/4, VII 2018, Center for Security Studies ETH, Zurich, dostępny w internecie [dostęp: 11 V 2020]: <https://ethz.ch/content/dam/ethz/special-interest/gess/cis/center-for-securities-studies/pdfs/PP6-4_2018.pdf, DOI: 10.3929/ethz-b-000274875>.

Blackwill R. D., Harris J. M., War by other means: geoeconomics and statecraft, Council on Foreign Relations Book, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. 2016.

Christen E., Fritz O., Streicher G., Effects of the EU-Russia economic sanctions on value added and employment in the European Union and Switzerland, Austrian Institute for Economic Research, 2015, dostępny w internecie [dostęp: 11 V 2020]: <https://www.wifo.ac.at/en/pubma_entries?detail-view=yes&publikation_id=5>.

Codevilla A. M., Do economic sanctions work?, Hoover Institution, “Strategika” [online], 29 III 2018 [dostęp: 11 V 2020], dostępny w internecie: <https://www.hoover.org/research/do-economic-sanctions-work>.

Doxey M. P., Economic sanctions and international enforcement, Oxford University Press, London–Basingstoke 1971.

Doxey M. P., International sanctions in contemporary perspective, Palgrave Macmillan, New York 1987.

Dreyer I., Popescu N., Do sanctions against Russia work?, European Union Institute for Strategic Studies Brief, December 2014, dostępny w internecie [dostęp: 11 V 2020]: <https://www.iss.europa.eu/sites/default/files/EUISSFiles/Brief_35_Russia_sanctions.pdf>.

Drezner D., The sanctions parado. Economic statecraft and international relations, Cambridge University Press, New York 1999.

Frost M., Michelsen N., Strategic communications in international relations: Practical traps and ethical puzzles, “Defence Strategic Communications. The Official Journal of NATO Strategic Communications Centre of Excellence”, vol. 2, Spring 2017, dostępny w internecie [dostęp: 11 V 2020]: <https://stratcomcoe.org/mervyn-frost-nicholas-michelsen-strategic-communications-international-relations-practical-traps-and>.

Frye T., Economic sanctions and public opinion. Survey experiments from Russia, “Comparative Political Studies” 2019, vol. 52, No. 7, DOI: 10.1177/0010414018806530.

Giumelli F., Coercing, constraining and signalling. Explaining UN and EU sanctions after the cold war, ECPR Press, Colchester 2011.

Gross D., Mustili F., The effects of sanctions and counter-sanctions on EU-Russia trade flows, Centre for European Policy Studies 2016, dostępny w internecie [dostęp: 11 V 2020]: <https://www.ceps.eu/ceps-publications/effects-sanctions-and-counter-sanctions-eu-russian-trade-flows>.

Hufbauer G. C., Schott J. J., Elliott K. A., Oegg B., Economic sanctions reconsidered (3 ed.), Peterson Institute of International Economics, Columbia University Pres, Washington, DC 2007.

Jones L., Societies under siege. Exploring how international economic sanctions (do not) work, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2015.

Korhonen I., Simola H., Solanko L., Sanctions, counter-sanctions and Russia – effects on economy, trade and finance, “BOTIF Policy Brief” 2018, No. 4, Bank of Finland – Institute for Economies Transition, dostępny w internecie [dostęp: 11 V 2020]: <https://helda.helsinki.fi/bof/bitstream/handle/123456789/15510/bpb0418.pdf?sequence=1>.

Menkes M., Stosowanie sankcji gospodarczych – analiza prawnomiędzynarodowa, Toruń 2011.

Nephew R., The art of sanctions: a view from the field, Columbia University Press, New York 2018.

Miyagawa M., Do economic sanctions work?, Palgrave Macmillan Press, London 1992.

Zeman M., President of the Czech Republic. Speech made to the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly [online], 10 X 2017 [dostęp: 11 V 2020], dostępny w internecie: <http://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/Speeches/Speech-XML2HTML-EN.asp?SpeechID=257&a1=8&p2=1&lang=EN>.

Pobierz

Opublikowane : 2020-08-21


Wyciszkiewicz, E. (2020). Sankcje jako forma dialogu. Sprawy Międzynarodowe, 72(4), 59-76. https://doi.org/10.35757/SM.2019.72.4.04

Ernest Wyciszkiewicz  wyciszkiewicz@cprdip.pl
Centrum Polsko-Rosyjskiego Dialogu i Porozumienia  Polska





Inne teksty tego samego autora